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A Brief Overview on Pig Iron

Iron is among the most commonly found metals on the earth’s crust. Almost all building projects comprises iron in some form or the other. Iron is also one of the metals that were forged a long time back in humankind’s history and were first molded into valuable and decorative objects at least 3,500 years ago.


Pure iron is a greyish-white metal and despite its abundance, iron is not found in nature in its purest form. Most of the iron reserves are present in the form of minerals and oxide ores. The minerals deposited on the earth’s crust having the greatest iron content are known as hematite and are extracted commercially.


The extraction of iron from its ore entails an oxidation-reduction process staged in a blast furnace. Over 1.1 billion tons of iron were produced using blast furnaces worldwide in 2016. Iron ore is normally a combination of iron and huge quantities of impurities such as clay and sand known as gangue. The iron unearthed from iron ores is present in the form of iron oxides. Due to these impurities, iron has to be removed from the gangue and then transformed into pure iron. This is achieved through pyro metallurgy, a high-temperature procedure. High temperatures are required for the oxidation of the limestone and the reduction of iron.


Pig Iron


A Pig ingot or pig iron is a form of iron that can have several dimensions. Broadly, ingots are often shaped in the form of a cube or a cuboid with varying lengths of the edges. The uniqueness of ingot casting is the wide-ranging variety of metals that can be used. An iron ingot can be produced as a sample or on a large scale.


Ingots can be produced either through mechanical production or through the timeless casting method. There are several alternatives between standardized or individual sizes, materials, and forms. Thanks to innovative steel manufacturing units and a comprehensive portfolio of opportunities with respect to shaping and heat generation, orders for ingot castings can be achieved in a steadfast manner and within a short span of time. Each manufacturing step, from simulation to completion, is quality controlled in the form of an emission spectrometer for iron and nickel matrix and thermal analysis for assessment of the hardening properties of cast iron.


Pig Iron is available in three grades.


1. Foundry Grade


Carbon: 3.8% - 4%

Silicon: 2.0% - 2.50 %

Manganese: 0.5% - 0.9 %

Sulphur: 0.06 % MAX

Phosphorous: 0.12 % MAX


2. SG Grade

Carbon: 3.8% - 4.2 %

Silicon: 1.5% - 2.1 %

Manganese: 0.3 % MAX

Sulphur: 0.03 % MAX

Phosphorous: 0.07 % MAX


3. Basic Grade

Carbon: 3.8% - 4.5 %

Silicon 1.0% - 1.50 %

Manganese: 0.4% - 0.8 %

Sulphur: 0.08 % MAX

Phosphorous: 0.12 % MAX



Casting Method for the Production of Ingot Castings

The fastest and easiest procedure for the production of ingots is casting. This procedure is centered on a type whose inner dimensions resemble the precise size of the ingot and where the molten metal is poured into. For a single ingot, the procedure consists of a sand mix, while serial productions are carried out with the help of environmentally friendly models. A model with neat and precise edges is the foundation for an ingot, whose dimensions correspond to the order.


Solutions for Ingot Casting

When molten steel is poured into the ingot mold, gradual solidification begins from the base and the walls of the mold, turning in in the direction of the thermal axis.

The molten steel shrinks in volume during and after hardening and there is inadequate solid metal to fill the shell created. The outcome is a body of steel with cavitation to harden. This does not happen with rimming steel where the contraction is offset by the growth of gas blowholes.


The seriousness and distribution of this hinge on many factors including superheating during pouring, the quality of steel, technique of pouring (whether indirect or direct) and the dimensions of the mold. Such cavitation is also linked with contaminations, which come together, by segregation forming an unfavorable distribution of unwanted elements in the final product.


It is thus essential to manipulate the quantity and position of cavitation by lowering it to a minimum and placing it where it will be least damaging in the solidified ingot.


Application Area of Ingot Castings

Ingot casting is used in numerous branches and sectors. Based on the size and material, it portrays a key role in the production of construction and tool machinery and in the construction industry. Ingots made by casting can weigh in the range of 300 kg to 9 tons, therefore, they are specifically used in the heavy industry, heavy-duty cranes, and the shipbuilding sector. In a wide-ranging consultation, it can be examined, which ingot casting is fit for an individual application of the customer, before simulation and calculation.

Special dimension ingot castings improve the areas of application and set the foundation for several usage options.


Today modern ore-enrichment practices have made the use of low-grade ore much more appealing, and there is a huge supply of that ore. The effectiveness of blast furnaces alone has advanced extraordinarily. At Metals planet, one of the largest online B2B marketplaces for ferrous and non-ferrous metals, buyers can reach many sellers and place orders to suitable sellers.

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